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How to appreciate calligraphy

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How to appreciate calligraphy
The writings thoroughly reveal the sensibility of the writer. Accordingly, the following diverse range of methods are necessary in order to properly appreciate the calligraphic writings.

Jangbeop

Jangbeop refers to the methods of composition of the jspects of the characters. That is, it refers to how the arrangement between the characters and between the sentences is made. If the characters are arranged in a straight line, it gives sense of unification, while irregular arrangement gives feeling of variation. In particular, the margin between the characters and sentences is one of highly important factors that accomplish such ambience of writing. Although relatively well ordered spacing of characters and sentences are used in Jeonseo, Yeoseo and Haeseo, the breadth of variation in the size of characters and usage of dots and strokes are quite substantial in Haengseo or Choseo, thereby using more complex method in their spacing of characters and sentences.

Writing with monotonous Jangbeop and writings with variable Jangbeop

  • Yoobangpyeong Chaeryungok – writings of Cho Sok
  • Yoobangpyeong Chaeryungok – writings of Cho Sok
  • Samagwang Hoeisoseo – writings of Cho Yoon Hyung
  • Samagwang Hoeisoseo – writings of Cho Yoon Hyung

Gyeolgu

Essential element that composes the expression of characters is ‘Gyeolgu’. This refers to the method of combining the dots and strokes of characters, that is, the structural framework. For example, structure can be tight, loose, regular or irregular. In addition, elements of Gyeolgu include size of the characters, Pyeongjang, which is the measure of horizontal flatness or vertical elongation of the figure of the characters, Byeon and Bang of characters, and Hyangbae, which is the extent of the concordance or confrontation of the head and subjoining strokes of the characters. In addition, it refers to the balanced treatment of sparseness and denseness relationship between the characters and the margins arising from the length, posture, thick and thin strokes, curvature, regularity and intonation of dots and strokes.

Writings with elongated composition of characters form and writings with flattened composition form

  • Juhee Dajo – written section of Yoo Han Ji
  • Juhee Dajo – written section of Yoo Han Ji
Juhee Dajo – written section of Yoo Han Ji

Expression of dots and strokes

The ambience of characters differs depending on the expression of dots and strokes, and such expression in turn depends on the method of using the brush. For example, dots and strokes can displays diverse range of configurations including rounded or sharp, and straight or curved depending on how the end of the brush was used. Jeonseo uses Wonjeon, which is technique of rounding the end of the brush, while Yeseo uses Bangjeol frequently, which is a technique of sharply bending the end of the brush. In addition, expression of curve lines is valued in Jeonseo and Choseo, and expression of straight line in Haeseo, while Yeseo and Haengseo places importance on harmonizing of curve and straight lines.

Writings of Bangpil and Wonpil

  • Sipyeonggongjosanggi section
  • Sipyeonggongjosanggi section
  • Jungheehabi section
  • Jungheehabi section

Woonpil

Woonpil refers to the method of using brush. That is, properties of dots and strokes and expressions of characters differ depending on whether the brush is held upright or inclined, or whether characters are written quickly or slowly. Those that were written with quick and forceful movement of brush and those with slow and gentle movement differ in the speed of the brush, the quantity of ink allowed to soak into the paper and the pressure exerted on the paper, thereby resulting in varying expressions.

Writings with feeling of quickness of the Woonpil speed

  • Among the writings of 12 contemporary renowned calligraphers on folding screen – writings of Yoo Chang Hwan
  • Among the writings of 12 contemporary renowned calligraphers on folding screen – writings of Yoo Chang Hwan

Yongmook

Yongmook method of how to depth of the ink color when writing is also very important. That is, the ambience of the writing differs substantially depending of the quantity, light and shade, and tone of ink. If thick Nongmook is used, then the contrast between the black and white of the writings becomes definitive with resulting powerful and neat strokes. However, if it is too thick, it may easily make the texture dull and heavy. On the other hand, although one can achieve gentle and leisurely ambience through creation of color that harmonizes with the background when diluted Dammook is used, texture may become weak if it is too diluted. In addition, although Woolpil becomes softer and ink color glossy thereby accomplishing feeling of sufficiency if abundant ink water is used, it may weaken the strength of the strokes. In comparison, if the water added to dilute the ink is insufficient, the Woonpil becomes coarse and achieves rustic and broad-minded ambience. However, the configurations of the dots and strokes may easily become crumbled.

Writings with large quantity of water added to ink and writings with feeling of haggardness due to small quantity of water added to ink

  • Chileonjeolgu – section of writing by Kim Don Hee
  • Chileonjeolgu – section of writing by Kim Don Hee
  • Among the writings of 12 contemporary renowned calligraphers on folding screen - section of writing by Kim Gyu Jin
  • Among the writings of 12 contemporary renowned calligraphers on folding screen - section of writing by Kim Gyu Jin

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